Teratozoospermia is the presence of a large number of abnormal cells in the seminal fluid. As anomalous units, male sex cells with a pathological structure of the neck, tail, or head can act.
Fig. 1 - Teratozoospermia - the content of pathological forms of spermatozoa in the ejaculate is higher than normal.
In the spermogram of a healthy man, pathological units are always found, the percentage of which remains within the limits of the norm. With teratozoospermia, the number of pathological elements increases several times, which threatens the onset of infertility.
Medical specialists do not single out one single cause of this phenomenon. There are pathological factors that can cause qualitative changes in seminal fluid. These factors include:
- impact of adverse environmental factors;
- failure in the enzymatic system;
- chromosomal abnormalities;
- infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system;
- the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and radiation;
- chronic diseases of internal organs and systems;
- prolonged exposure to low or high temperatures;
- alcohol and tobacco use;
- viral infection of the male body;
- varikotsele .
At the given pathological condition, the man does not note visible changes in his condition. At first glance, the clinical picture of teratozoospermia is completely absent. To recognize negative changes it is possible only during carrying out spermogrammy (see "How correctly to be prepared for delivery spermogrammy" ). There are such structural changes in male sex cells:
- From the side of the tail. In this condition, elongation or shortening of the tail of the spermatozoa can be observed. One sex cell often has several tail ends.
- From the side of the head. The cephalic end of the sperm can be enlarged or reduced. The shape of the head often acquires conical or rounded outlines, acrosomes and chromatin vary. The number of heads can also vary.
- From the neck. The area of the isthmus in spermatozoa can thicken or thin out in the middle part. Very often an obtuse angle of the neck is formed.
Abnormal sex cells can not fully fertilize the egg. This entails not only infertility in the male type, but also increases the risk of a negative result in in vitro fertilization (IVF).
For an accurate diagnosis, the so-called teratozoospermia index plays an important role. A similar test is used to determine the number of abnormal germ cells. The index is calculated by dividing the total number of defects by the number of abnormal spermatozoa. In the process of calculation, medical experts take into account any anomalies in the development of spermatozoa.
Further, they are sorted according to the localization location of the defect (isthmus, caudal part or head). If an anomaly is found in one part of the germ cell, index 1 is set. If more than one part is involved in the pathology, then experts mark this number of defects with the corresponding indices. The maximum index reaches 3, which denotes the total defect of the sperm.
In order to achieve high informativeness, laboratory specialists perform dyeing of biological material using the Kruger technique. Not more than half of the mutated sex cells are considered an acceptable norm. The diagnosis is confirmed in case of damage to more than 85% of spermatozoa.
After the detection of a large number of abnormal germ cells in the semen, the man is selected an individual course of drug therapy. A prerequisite for effective treatment is the elimination of factors that contribute to a change in the structure of the sex cells. Basic therapy of teratozoospermia includes such groups of medicines:
- Biologically active additives that have a positive effect are not metabolic processes in the body. These drugs include L-carnitine, Spermaktin, Iodomarin, Tribestan, succinic acid, Gerimax, propolis;
- Multivitamin complexes containing zinc and folic acid .
If the cause of this condition is infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, the man will be given a course of antibacterial therapy in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs. For the entire period of treatment it is recommended to completely abandon the use of alcohol and tobacco smoking.
The possibility of conception
The probability of natural conception with teratozoospermia is directly proportional to the number of abnormal germ cells in the seminal fluid. The growth of this indicator reduces a man's chances of conceiving a child in a natural way. The fertility of the male organism is influenced, also, by the causes of morphological changes in spermatozoa.
This condition is not a sentence for the male body, but the percentage probability of natural fertilization can be calculated only on the basis of spermogram data. With a slight increase in the number of abnormal spermatozoa, a man is recommended to attempt self-conception while undergoing a course of drug therapy. If the teratozoospermia index exceeds the permissible parameters, then the pair is recommended to use the services of in vitro fertilization (IVF) .