It is difficult to overestimate the value of testosterone in the male body. Indeed, in fact, it is this hormone that is responsible for the manifestation of male signs, both in physiological and psychological aspects, plays a key role in maintaining many of the functions of the body.
Fig. 1 - The main effects of testosterone in men.
Androgenic and anabolic effects of testosterone:
- Growth and development of the genitals. In transitional age, testosterone is responsible for increasing penis size , testicular development and prostate development;
- Strengthened hair on the face, trunk, limbs, male pubic hair growth (hair growth has a diamond shape, with hair spread to the navel), as well as formation of bald patches and bald spots (dihydrotestosterone effect);
- Breaking voices. Under the influence of testosterone, the vocal cords thicken, making the male voice low;
- The development and growth of muscles. Testosterone promotes protein synthesis, which leads to pronounced muscle growth. A decrease in testosterone inevitably leads to muscle wasting;
- Maintain bone density. Osteoporosis in older men is largely associated with age-related androgen deficiency .
Effect of testosterone on the behavior and central nervous system:
- Libido formation;
- Mood, lack of stress and depression. Testosterone is an antagonist hormone for cortisol - a stress hormone ;
- The ability to concentrate, analytical thinking, good memory and quick thinking are necessary for men for hunting, fishing, etc .;
- Orientation in space. As a rule, men are better oriented in space than women. This is due to the hunter's ancient instinct, when the men went long distances from the settlement, to get food;
- Increased vitality and performance are necessary for men for physical and mental activity;
- The formation of a stereotype of sexual behavior (aggressive, belligerent behavior, confidence, initiative).
Effect of testosterone on sexual and reproductive function:
- Maintaining spermatogenesis;
- Erectile function.
Other effects of testosterone:
- The distribution of adipose tissue in the upper torso (Fig. 2);
- Accelerated metabolism. Thanks to testosterone, the male body has a more pronounced metabolism, which eliminates the deposition of excess fat, despite the fact that a man needs more food for existence;
- The increased activity of the sweat glands is due to the fact that the activity of a man is associated with physical labor: hunting, construction, logging, etc .;
- Rapid wound healing;
- Enhanced immunity. Testosterone promotes the enhanced formation of red blood cells.
Fig. 2 - Effect of sex hormones on the nature of the distribution of adipose tissue
T - testosterone, E - estradiol, P - progesterone.
The physiological effects of testosterone depend not only on the action of testosterone itself (direct action on the target organs), but also on its active metabolites (Table 1). By active metabolites, dihydrotestosterone is primarily meant for men , which is the most active metabolite of testosterone (its androgenic activity is 2.5-4 times higher than testosterone), and estrogens, in particular estradiol . Thus, in order for testosterone to have a full spectrum of biological activity, it is necessary that metabolic processes proceed with the formation of active metabolites.
Table 1 - The main effects of testosterone, estradiol and dihydrotestosterone in the male body.
|Effects of testosterone||Effects of estradiol||Effects of dihydrotestosterone|
|Libido||Sexual behavior||Prostate hypertrophy|
|Regulation of secretion of LH, FSH||Regulation of secretion of LH, FSH||Acne|
|Effect on blood lipids||Effect on blood lipids||Alopecia|
|Hair growth on the face, trunk, limbs||Hair growth on the head||Effect on the central nervous system: mood, memory, attention|
|Maintain bone density||Maintain bone density|
|Growth, development and maintenance of muscle tissue, kidneys, liver, bones|
|Stimulation of hemopoiesis|
|Effect on the central nervous system: mood, memory, attention|
As you can see, the effect of testosterone on men is enormous, and is able to fully determine the physical and psychological qualities of the individual. Therefore, all men, without exception, should take care of its sufficient level.