The diagnosis of male infertility and the determination of the causes of its development require a series of tests. The following studies will help answer the many questions concerning the male reproductive system:
- tests for genital infections ;
- microscopic examination of prostatic secretions;
- Analysis of urine;
- study of blood hormones.
Spermogram is the most informative method of research of the ejaculate, allowing to accurately assess the reproductive potential of the patient. The resulting material is examined using phase-contrast microscopy. This is a special staining technique, due to which it is possible to evaluate the morphological characteristics of spermatozoa. Normally, the sperm of a healthy male has a white-grayish color, a peculiar odor, pH 7.2-8.0, is distinguished by some turbidity and the absence of mucus. At the same time in 1 ml of ejaculate is detected from 20 to 200 ml of sperm. More than half of them should have the correct head structure and high mobility.
The following violations may testify in favor of male infertility:
- azoospermia - the absence of sperm in the ejaculate;
- oligospermia - a decrease in the number of sperm;
- asthenozoospermia - reduced sperm motility.
Sexual infection tests
In the diagnosis of male infertility, it is important to identify sexually transmitted infections . The most common causative agents of such diseases are chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, candida, herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, papillomavirus. To determine the availability of data of infectious agents using the following studies:
- polymerase chain reaction (PCR);
- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA);
- microbiological examination.
Microscopic examination of prostate secretion
The study of the secret of the prostate gland allows to evaluate its functional activity and to determine signs of inflammation. The secret is taken after the massage of the prostate gland. When studying the material obtained, special attention is paid to the number of leukocytes, an increase in the number of which may indicate the presence of inflammation. In addition, the detection of bacteria and lecithin grains is an unfavorable sign. In some cases, it is possible to cultivate a viral pathogen isolated from prostate secretion.
Analysis of urine
The results of urine analysis can reveal changes in the body, indicating not only problems in the reproductive system, but also on the pathology of metabolism. So in men suffering from reproductive dysfunction, it is possible to diagnose symptoms of urinary infections, diabetes mellitus, hormonal disorders.
Comprehensive examination of patients with suspected male infertility is impossible without a blood test to determine the hormonal status of the organism. At the same time, special attention is paid to changes in the levels of such hormones as prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH (more details here ). Violation of the production of these substances can have a serious impact on the quality of sperm and the state of the reproductive system as a whole.
Qualitative examination is the first step towards eliminating male infertility.