According to statistics, every 10th married couple is barren. In this case, not always the source of problems with conception is a woman. In about 45% of cases, infertility is due to the male factor.
For the implementation of the reproductive function of men are responsible sperm. It is these cells that carry genetic information transmitted from father to child. In order for the sperm to meet with the egg, the harmonious work of the organs of the male reproductive system is necessary. So sperm must pass unhindered through the convoluted tubules of the testicles, finally mature in the appendages and be delivered into the woman's vagina along with the sperm. Violations can occur at any of the stages of this path.
There are the following types of male infertility, depending on the reasons:
The cause of infertility in this case is a violation of the process of sperm production. As a result, an insufficient amount of sperm is secreted, or the cells have structural defects that prevent them from achieving the goal.
Among the diseases leading to the development of secretory forms of infertility, include the following:
- varicocele - this pathological condition is accompanied by varicose veins of the testicle , as a result of which the deformed vessels are not able to provide a complete outflow of blood from its tissues. As a result, blood stasis and marked reduction in sperm production by both testes develops;
- dropsy of the testicle - in the case of the development of this disease, there is also an accumulation of an excess amount in the testicular tissues, which leads to a violation of its functions;
- cryptorchidism - in this case, the production of spermatozoa is disturbed due to the abnormal location of the testicles, which do not descend into the scrotum during the development of the genital organs;
- epidemic parotitis - the causative agent of this infectious disease affects predominantly glandular tissue in the patient's body. That is why inflammation in mumps begins with the salivary glands and, if there is no adequate treatment, it can spread to the spermatogenic epithelium of the testes.
The following factors can also affect the sperm production process:
- exposure to ionizing radiation;
- frequent visits to the bath and sauna;
- wearing tight linen made of synthetic fabrics (more about the effect of men's underwear on men's health );
- hormonal disorders (see hormones in men );
- taking certain drugs, such as antibiotics, antiepileptic and anti-tumor drugs, antiandrogens, steroid hormones;
- prolonged stress;
- chronic sleep deprivation;
- alcohol abuse;
- taking drugs;
- inadequate diet.
This form of infertility develops in the case when the promotion of sperm along the vas deferens becomes impossible. The cause of the obliteration of these ducts can be inflammation of the testicular tissue or orchitis. This disease can be caused by both nonspecific infectious pathogens, for example, staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, and specific tuberculosis infection.
Trauma to the testicles, damage to the sperm tubuli during operations on the pelvic organs can also lead to the development of obstructive infertility. In addition, such violations occur in the compression of the vas deferens by cysts or tumors of the epididymis. Do not forget about the possibility of congenital pathology of the structure of the testicle.
About 10% of infertile couples do not have any diseases that cause difficulties with conception. In this case, talking about the immunological incompatibility of partners. This means that antibodies against sperm or other components of the husband’s sperm are found in the woman’s body. As a result, the probability of egg fertilization and pregnancy is significantly reduced.
Among other causes of male infertility are most common:
- hypospadias - in this case, the opening of the urethra is not located at the top of the glans penis, somewhat lower. Therefore, during ejaculation, only a small part of the spermatozoa enters the cervix;
- erectile dysfunction - insufficient erection and rare sexual intercourse reduce the likelihood of conception;
- chronic prostatitis is often the cause of erection problems.
To find out the cause of male infertility, you should contact your andrologist or urologist.